If the quantity of bilirubin in the blood is raised, the skin may be yellow or the color of the white of the eyes, then the person may experience jaundice.Subsequently, increased bilirubin level is due to abdominal tract obstruction, through liver disease, or excessive impairment of red blood cells.
There are forms of jaundice:
⦁ Hemolytic jaundice – due to demolition of of RBCs
⦁ Obstructive jaundice – due to occlusion of common bile ducts and its related pathway
⦁ Hepatocellular jaundice – due to destruction of liver and their cells
Common causes of JAUNDICE
Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that forms from old blood cells when it breaks down into the liver. Which is due to the deterioration of these old cells.The jaundice is made up of bilirubin, a waste substance is made into being by inflammation of liver or obstruction of gallbladder either by stone or unknown cause.
Newborn jaundice is more common nowadays, especially in premature babies because it has more waste material bilirubin than normal babies in their blood.Due to this reason ,it is known as breast milk jaundice.
Jaundice in adults
A list of conceivable reasons of jaundice in grown-ups is given below
⦁ Liver Infection
⦁ Pancreatic Cancer
⦁ Medications Overdose or adverse effects
⦁ Liver Cancer
⦁ G6PD deficiency
⦁ Acute pancreatitis
⦁ Yellow fever
⦁ Weil’s disease
⦁ ABO incompatibility reaction
⦁ Biliary (bile duct) obstruction
Symptoms of jaundice
The jaundice is not a disease by itself, but when you see the following symptoms that indicate the jaundice.Once you know the symptoms of jaundice, it is important to treat it before it is too late.
Accompanying symptoms of jaundice include:
· Yellow Pigmentation
· Dark Urine
· Pale Stool
· Abdominal Pain
· Flu-Like Symptoms
· Difficulty Sleeping
Tests and diagnosis
The severity of jaundice in newborns is generally diagnosed with a blood test.There are a lot of blood test which not only diagnose jaundice but also give information of its related disorder and underlying conditions.
Other diagnostic tests may be used, including:
⦁ Liver function tests are groups of blood tests that degree levels of certain proteins and proteins the liver produces conjointly give data around the state of a patient’s liver either its damaged or healthy
⦁ Complete blood count (CBC),show complete picture of blood cells and its component like red blood cells,white blood cells platelets and ESR (shows infection), to determine reason behind jaundice
⦁ Imaging studies, which may incorporate abdominal ultrasounds and CT scans
⦁ Ultraosongraphy is valuable to precisely decide the location and etiology of biliary obstruction.Sonography is a great screening strategy for recognizing widened ducts from non-dilated ducts.
⦁ CT scan of the liver are beneficial to check possible reasons of jaundice.There are two types of CT scan Biphasic and triphasic CT scan for liver
⦁ MRCP is named as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography used to differentiate jaundice reason either its due to blockage of bile ducts or not.
⦁ Liver biopsy, is performed under ultrasonography or CT guided technique to draw a tissue from the liver.
How is JAUNDICE treated?
As mentioned earlier, treatment of jaundice in children especially in newborn immature babies needs special treatment.For this purpose, phototherapy may be utilized as an uncommon strategy with utilize of extraordinary light to lower over the top bilirubin.
Blood transfusion is another choice of treatment to remove excessive bilirubin from the blood,when jaundice is in severe condition.
We are mentioned above, jaundice has three types and their treatment methods are totally different which are given below
⦁ Hepatitis-induced jaundice requires antiviral or steroid medications.
⦁ Obstruction-induced jaundice treated by surgically expelling the obstruction.
⦁ Increased press levels within the blood can remedy anemia-induced jaundice, either by taking press supplements or eating press wealthy nourishment.
When and what doctor to check?
After their appearance on healthy babies, it clears and improvement occur without any medication in three to six weeks.But in contrast to immature babies, without treatment it s not to be resolved and hospital admission is must for proper treatment.The amount of bilirubin in the blood damages your body especially brain.This is called a kernicterus.
If you are experiencing fever or abdominal pain along with jaundice, do not take this situation lightly, but contact a specialist in the emergency department as soon as possible which can be diagnosed by a child specialist (neonatologist) or gastroenterologist.Ascending cholangitis is a very dangerous situation in which jaundice symptoms exists.
Prevention of Jaundice
There are no precautionary measures to prevent jaundice, but you should take special precautions when it comes to its effects.
⦁ Hepatitis contamination can spread from unclean nourishment and water. Avoid the causes of hepatitis infection
⦁ Do not allow cholesterol to increase
⦁ Maintain a healthy weight
⦁ Avoid alcohol as much possible
⦁ Keep away from high-risk behaviors such as unprotected intercourse or intravenous drug use, and take special precautions when working with blood products and needles.
⦁ Take the medicine as directed by your doctor to halt any possible liver damage.